Decomposition theorem for perverse sheaves on algebraic varieties, proved by Beilinson-Bernstein-Deligne-Gabber, is one of the most important and useful theorems in the contemporary mathematics. By the Riemann-Hilbert correspondence, we may regard it as a theorem for regular holonomic D-modules of geometric origin. Rather recently, it was generalized to the context of semisimple holonomic D-modules which are not necessarily regular.
The sum-of-squares (SOS) hierarchy (due to Shor'85, Parrilo'00, and Lasserre'00) is a widely-studied meta-algorithm for (non-convex) polynomial optimization that has its roots in Hilbert's 17th problem about non-negative polynomials.
SOS plays an increasingly important role in theoretical computer science because it affords a new and unifying perspective on the field's most basic question:
What's the best possible polynomial-time algorithm for a given computational problem?
Over the past two decades, information theory has reemerged within computational complexity theory as a mathematical tool for obtaining unconditional lower bounds in a number of models, including streaming algorithms, data structures, and communication complexity. Many of these applications can be systematized and extended via the study of information complexity – which treats information revealed or transmitted as the resource to be conserved.