Entanglement Wedge Reconstruction and the Information Paradox

Entanglement Wedge Reconstruction and the Information Paradox - Geoff Penington

Geoff Penington
Stanford University
October 14, 2019

When absorbing boundary conditions are used to evaporate a black hole in AdS/CFT, we show that there is a phase transition in the location of the quantum Ryu-Takayanagi surface, at precisely the Page time. The new RT surface lies slightly inside the event horizon, at an infalling time approximately one scrambling time in the past. We can immediately derive the Page curve, using the Ryu-Takayanagi formula, and the Hayden-Preskill decoding criterion, using entanglement wedge reconstruction. Becausepart of the interior is now encoded in the early Hawking radiation, the decreasing entanglement entropy of the black hole is exactly consistent with the semiclassical bulk entanglement of the late-time Hawking modes, despite the absence of a firewall. By studying the entanglement wedge of highly mixed states, we can understand the state dependence of the interior reconstructions. Directly after the Page time, interior operators can only be reconstructed from the Hawking radiation if the initial state of the black hole is known. As the black hole continues to evaporate, reconstructions become possible that simultaneously work for a large class of initial states. This state dependence provides the mechanism by which information that falls into the black hole eventually escapes in the Hawking radiation.